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NEWS

Update: Jan12th 2018
We're Hiring!  Position in both our office and warehouse teams avaiable; check our our Careers section for more informaiton

Update: May 16th 2016
We're moving on May 24th 2016 - 53,000sq.ft 10docks + 2 Drive-in CBSA Bonded Sufferance Warehouse.
For more information, click here

Update: Mar 1st 2012
G.E. adds two 53' trailers to our fleet.

Update: Jan 1st 2011
G.E. opens it's operations in Vietnam with two new locations.

Read more

N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z


N

Nautical Mile
Distance of one minute of longitude at the equator, approximately 6,076.115. The metric equivalent is 1852.

N.C.I.T.D.
National Committee on International Trade Documentation.

NEC
Abbreviation for "Not Elsewhere Classified."

Negotiable Instruments
A document of title (such as a draft, promissory note, check, or bill of lading) transferable from one person to another in good faith for a consideration. Non-negotiable bills of lading are known as "straight consignment." Negotiable bills are known as "order b/l's."

NES
Abbreviation for "Not Elsewhere Specified."

Nested
Articles packed so that one rests partially or entirely within another, thereby reducing the cubic-foot displacement.

Net Tare Weight
The weight of an empty cargo-carrying piece of equipment plus any fixtures permanently attached.

Net Tonnage (NT)
(0.2+0.02 log10(Vc)) Vc (4d/3D)2, for passenger ships the following formula is added: 1.25 (GT+10000)/10000 (N1+(N2/10)), where Vc is the volume of cargo holds, D is the distance between ship's bottom and the uppermost deck, d is the draught N1 is the number of cabin passengers, and N2 is the number of deck passengers.) "Ton" is figured as an 100 cubic foot ton.

Net Weight
Weight of the goods alone without any immediate wrappings, e.g., the weight of the contents of a tin can without the weight of the can.

Neutral Body
An organization established by the members of an ocean conference acts as a self-policing force with broad authority to investigate tariff violations, including authority to scrutinize all documents kept by the carriers and their personnel. Violations are reported to the membership and significant penalties are assessed.

N.M.F.C.
National Motor Freight Classification.

NOI
Abbreviation for "Not Otherwise Indexed."

NOIBN
Abbreviation for "Not Otherwise Indexed By Name."

Nomenclature of the Customs Cooperation Council
The Customs tariff used by most countries worldwide. It was formerly known as the Brussels Tariff Nomenclature and is the basis of the commodity coding system known as the Harmonized System.

Non-Dumping Certificate
Required by some countries for protection against the dumping of certain types of merchandise or products.

Non-Vessel Operating Common Carrier (NVOCC)
A cargo consolidator in ocean trades who will buy space from a carrier and sub sell it to smaller shippers. The NVOCC issues bills of lading, publishes tariffs and otherwise conducts itself as an ocean common carrier, except that it will not provide the actual ocean or intermodal service.

NOR
Notice of Readiness, or Not Otherwise Rated.

NOS
Abbreviation for "Not Otherwise Specified."

Nose
Front of a container or trailer - opposite the tail.

No-show
Cargo which has been booked but does not arrive in time to be loaded before the vessel sails. See also "Windy Booking."

N.P.C.F.B.
North Pacific Coast Freight Bureau.

O

Ocean Bill of Lading (Ocean B/L)
A contract for transportation between a shipper and a carrier. It also evidences receipt of the cargo by the carrier. A bill of lading shows ownership of the cargo and, if made negotiable, can be bought, sold or traded while the goods are in-transit.

OCP
See "Overland Common Points."

ODS
Abbreviation for "Operating Differential Subsidy." An amount of money the U.S. government paid U.S. shipping companies that qualify for this subsidy. The intent was to help offset the higher subsidy. The intent was to help ofset the higher cost of operating a U.S.-flag vessel. The ODS program is administered by the U.S. Maritime Administration and is being phased out.

O.E.C.D.
Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development, headquartered in Paris with membership consisting of the world's developed nations.

On Board
A notation on a bill of lading that cargo has been loaded on board a vessel. Used to satisfy the requirements of a letter of credit, in the absence of an express requirement to the contrary.

On Deck
A notation on a bill of lading that the cargo has been stowed on the open deck of the ship.

Open Account
A trade arrangement in which goods are shipped to a foreign buyer without guarantee of payment.

Open Insurance Policy
A marine insurance policy that applies to all shipments made by an exporter over a period of time rather than to one shipment only.

Open Top Container
A container fitted with a solid removable roof, or with a tarpaulin roof so the container can be loaded or unloaded from the top.

Operating Ratio
A comparison of a carrier's operating expense with its net sales. The most general measure of operating efficiency.

O.P.I.C.
Overseas Private Investment Corporation.

Optimum Cube
The highest level of cube utilization that can be achieved when loading cargo into a container.

Order-Notify (O/N)
A bill of lading term to provide surrender of the original bill of lading before freight is released; usually associated with a shipment covered under a letter of credit.

ORFS
Abbreviation for "Origin Rail Freight Station." Same as CFS at origin except an ORFS is operated by the rail carrier participating in the shipment.

Origin
Location where shipment begins its movement.

Original Bill of Lading (OBL)
A document which requires proper signatures for consummating carriage of contract. Must be marked as "original" by the issuing carrier.

OS&D
Abbreviation for "Over, Short or Damaged" Usually discovered at cargo unloading.

Out Gate
Transaction or interchange that occurs at the time a container leaves a rail or water terminal.

Overcharge
To charge more than the proper amount according to the published rates.

Overheight Cargo
Cargo more than eight feet high which thus cannot fit into a standard container.

Overland Common Point (OCP)
A term stated on the bills of lading offering lower shipping rates to importers east of the Rockies, provided merchandise from the Far East comes in through the West Coast ports. OCP rates were established by U.S. West Coast steamship companies in conjunction with western railroads so that cargo originating or destined for the American Midwest and East would be competitive with all-water rates via the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf ports. Applies to eastern Canada.

Owner Code (SCAC)
Standard Carrier Abbreviation Code identifying an individual common carrier. A three letter carrier code followed by a suffix identifies the carrier's equipment. A suffix of "U" is a container and "C" is a chassis.

P

P&I
Abbreviation for "Protection and Indemnity," an insurance term.

Packing List
Itemized list of commodities with marks/numbers but no cost values indicated.

PADAG
Abbreviation for "Please Authorize Delivery Against Guarantee." A request from the consignee to the shipper to allow the carrier or agent to release cargo against a guarantee, either bank or personal. Made when the consignee is unable to produce original bills of lading.

Paired Ports
A U.S. Customs program wherein at least two designated Customs ports will enter cargo that arrives at either port without the necessity of an in-bound document.

Pallet
A platform with or without sides, on which a number of packages or pieces may be loaded to facilitate handling by a lift truck.

Paper Ramp
A technical rail ramp, used for equalization of points not actually served.

Paper Rate
A published rate that is never assessed because no freight moves under it.

Parcel Receipt
An arrangement whereby a steamship company, under rules and regulations established in the freight tariff of a given trade, accepts small packages at rates below the minimum bill of lading, and issues a parcel receipt instead of a bill of lading.

Partial Shipments
Under letters of credit, one or more shipments are allowed by the phrase "partial shipments permitted."

Particular Average
See Insurance, Particular Average.

Payee
A party named in an instrument as the beneficiary of the funds. Under letters of credit, the payee is either the drawer of the draft or a bank.

Payer
A party responsible for the payment as evidenced by the given instrument. Under letters of credit, the payer is the party on whom the draft is drawn, usually the drawee bank.

Per Diem
A charge, based on a fixed daily rate.

Perils of the Sea
Those causes of loss for which the carrier is not legally liable. The elemental risks of ocean transport.

Phytosanitary Inspection Certificate
A certificate issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture to satisfy import regulations of foreign countries; indicates that a U.S. shipment has been inspected and found free from harmful pests and plant diseases.

Pickup
The act of calling for freight by truck at the consignor's shipping platform.

Pier
The structure perpendicular to the shoreline to which a vessel is secured for the purpose of loading and unloading cargo.

Pier-to-House
A shipment loaded into a container at the pier or terminal, thence to the consignee's facility.

Pier-to-Pier
Containers loaded at port of loading and discharged at port of destination.

Piggy Packer
A mobile container-handling crane used to load/unload containers to/from railcars.

Piggyback
A transportation arrangement in which truck trailers with their loads are moved by train to a destination. Also known as Rail Pigs.

Place of Delivery
Place where cargo leaves the care and custody of carrier.

Place of Receipt
Location where cargo enters the care and custody of carrier.

Plimsoll Mark
A series of horizontal lines, corresponding to the seasons of the year and fresh or saltwater, painted on the outside of a ship marking the level which must remain above the surface of the water for the vessel's stability.

POD
Abbreviation for:
- Port of Discharge.
- Port of Destination.
- Proof of Delivery. A document required from the carrier or driver for proper payment.

Point of Origin
The place at which a shipment is received by a carrier from the shipper.

POL
Abbreviation for:
- Port of Loading.
- Petroleum, Oil, and Lubricants.

Pomerene Act, Also known as (U.S.) Federal Bill of Lading Act of 1916.
U.S. federal law enacting conditions by which a B/L may be issued. Penalties for issuing B/L's containing false data include monetary fines and/or imprisonment.

Port
- Harbor with piers or docks.
- Left side of a ship when facing forward.
- Opening in a ship's side for handling freight.

Port of Call
Port where a ship discharges or receives traffic.

Port of Entry
Port where cargo is unloaded and enters a country.

Port of Exit
Place where cargo is loaded and leaves a country.

Pratique Certificate
Lifts temporary quarantine of a vessel; granted pratique by Health Officer.

Pre-cooling
A process employed in the shipment of citrus fruits and other perishable commodities. The fruit is packed and placed in a cold room from which the heat is gradually extracted. The boxes of fruit are packed in containers that have been thoroughly cooled and transported through to destination without opening the doors.

Prepaid (Ppd.)
Freight charges paid by the consignor (shipper) prior to the release of the bills of lading by the carrier.

Pro Forma
A Latin term meaning "For the sake of form."

Pro Forma Invoice
An invoice provided by a supplier prior to the shipment of merchandise, informing the buyer of the kinds and quantities of goods to be sent, their value, and specifications (weight, size, etc.).

Pro Rata
A Latin term meaning "In proportion."

Project Rate
Single tariff item, established to move multiple commodities needed for a specified project, usually construction.

Public Service Commission
A name usually given to a State body having control or regulation of public utilities.

Publishing Agent
Person authorized by transportation lines to publish tariffs or rates, rules, and regulations for their account.

Pulp Temperature
Procedure where carrier tests the temperature of the internal flesh of refrigerated commodities to assure that the temperature at time of shipment conforms to prescribed temperature ranges.

Pup
A short semi-trailer used jointly with a dolly and another semi-trailer to create a twin trailer.

Q

Quarantine
A restraint placed on an operation to protect the public against a health hazard. A ship may be quarantined so that it cannot leave a protected point. During the quarantine period, the Q flag is hoisted.

Quoin
A wedge-shaped piece of timber used to secure barrels against movement.

Quota
The quantity of goods that may be imported without restriction during a set period of time.

Quotation
An offer to sell goods at a stated price and under stated terms.

Quay
A structure attached toland to which a vessel is moored. See also Pier and Dock.

R

Rag Top
A slang term for an open-top trailer or container with a tarpaulin cover.

Rail Division
The amount of money an ocean carrier pays to the railroad for overland carriage.

Rail Grounding
The time that the container was discharged (grounded) from the train.

Ramp
Railroad terminal where containers are received or delivered and trains loaded or discharged. Originally, trailers moved onto the rearmost flatcar via a ramp and driven into position in a technique known as "circus loading." Most modern rail facilities use lifting equipment to position containers onto the flatcars.

Ramp-to-Door
A movement where the load initiates at an origin rail ramp and terminates at a consignee's door.

Ramp-to-Ramp
A movement of equipment from an origin rail ramp to a destination rail ramp only.

Rate Basis
A formula of the specific factors or elements that control the making of a rate. A rate can be based on any number of factors (i.e., weight, measure, equipment type, package, box, etc.).

Reasonableness
Under ICC and common law, the requirement that a rate not be higher than is necessary to reimburse the carrier for the actual cost of transporting the traffic and allow a fair profit.

Rebate
An illegal form of discounting or refunding that has the net effect of lowering the tariff price. See also Malpractice.

Reconsignment
Changing the consignee or destination on a bill of lading while shipment is still in transit. Diversion has substantially the same meaning.

Recourse
A right claim against the guarantors of a loan or draft or bill of exchange.

Red Label
A label required on shipments of flammable articles.

Reefer
Refrigerated container.

Related Points
A group of points to which rates are made the same as or in relation to rates to other points in group.

RFQ
Request for quotation.

Relay
To transfer containers from one ship to another when both vessels are controlled by the same network (carrier) manager.

Remittance
Funds sent by one person to another as payment.

Restricted Articles
Articles handled only under certain conditions.

Revenue Ton (RT)
A ton on which the shipment is freighted. If cargo is rated as weight or measure (W/M), whichever produces the highest revenue will be considered the revenue ton. Weights are based on metric tons and measures are based on cubic meters. RT=1 MT or 1 CBM.

Reverse IPI
An inland point provided by an all water carrier's through bill of lading in the U.S. by first discharging the container in an East Coast port.

"Ro/Ro"
A shortening of the term, "Roll On/Roll Off." A method of ocean cargo service using a vessel with ramps which allows wheeled vehicles to be loaded and discharged without cranes.

Roll
To re-book cargo to a later vessel.

Rolling
The side-to-side (athwartship) motion of a vessel.

Route
The manner in which a shipment moves; i.e., the carriers handling it and the points at which the carriers interchange.

Running Gear
Complementary equipment for terminal and over the road handling containers.

RVNX
Abbreviation for "Released Value Not Exceeding." Usually used to limit the value of goods transported.The limitation refers to carrier liability when paying a claim for lost or damaged goods.

S

Sanction
An embargo imposed by a Government against another country.

SABS
South African Bureau of Standards

S/D
Abbreviation for:
- Sight draft.
- Sea damage.

SCAC Code
See Owner Code.

Schedule B
The Statistical Classification of Domestic and Foreign Commodities Exported from the United States.

Sea-Bee Vessels
Ocean vessels constructed with heavy-duty submersible hydraulic lift or elevator system at the stern of the vessel. The Sea-Bee system facilitates forward transfer and positioning of barges. Sea-Bee barges are larger than LASH barges. The Sea-Bee system is no longer used.

Sea Waybill
Document indicating the goods were loaded onboard when a document of title (b/L) is not needed. Typically used when a company is shipping goods to itself.
Seaworthiness
The fitness of a vessel for its intended use.

SED
U.S. Commerce Department document, "Shipper's Export Declaration."

Service
A string of vessels which makes a particular voyage and serves a particular market.

Service Contract
As provided in the Shipping Act of 1984, a contract between a shipper (or a shippers association) and an ocean common carrier (or conference) in which the shipper makes a commitment to provide a certain minimum quantity of cargo or freight revenue over a fixed time period, and the ocean common carrier or conference commits to a certain rate or rate schedule as well as a defined service level (such as assured space, transit time, port rotation or similar service features). The contract may also specify provisions in the event of nonperformance on the part of either party.

SHEX
Saturday and Holidays Excluded.

SHINC
Saturday and Holidays Included.

Ship Chandler
An individual or company selling equipment and supplies for ships.

Ship Demurrage
A charge for delaying a steamer beyond a stipulated period.

Ship's Bells
Measure time onboard ship. One bell sounds for each half hour. One bell means 12:30, two bells mean 1:00, three bells mean 1:30, and so on until 4:00 (eight bells). At 4:30 the cycle begins again with one bell.

Ship's Manifest
A statement listing the particulars of all shipments loaded for a specified voyage.

Ship's Tackle
All rigging, cranes, etc., utilized on a ship to load or unload cargo.

Shipment
The tender of one lot of cargo at one time from one shipper to one consignee on one bill of lading.

Shipper
The person or company who is usually the supplier or owner of commodities shipped. Also called Consignor.

Shippers Association
A non-profit entity that represents the interests of a number of shippers. The main focus of shippers associations is to pool the cargo volumes of members to leverage the most favorable service contract rate levels.

Shipper's Export Declaration (SED,"Ex Dec")
A joint Bureau of the Census' International Trade Administration form used for compiling U.S. exports. It is completed by a shipper and shows the value, weight, destination, etc., of export shipments as well as Schedule B commodity code.

Shipper's Instructions
Shipper's communication(s) to its agent and/or directly to the international water-carrier. Instructions may be varied, e.g., specific details/clauses to be printed on the B/L, directions for cargo pickup and delivery.

Shipper's Letter of Instructions for issuing an Air Waybill
The document required by the carrier or freight forwarders to obtain (besides the data needed) authorization to issue and sign the air waybill in the name of the shipper.

Shipper's Load & Count (SL&C)
Shipments loaded and sealed by shippers and not checked or verified by the carriers.

Shipping Act of 1916
The act of the U.S. Congress (1916) that created the U.S. Shipping Board to develop water transportation, operate the merchant ships owned by the government, and regulate the water carriers engaged in commerce under the flag of the United States. As of June 18, 1984, applies only to domestic offshore ocean transport.

Shipping Act of 1984
Effective June 18, 1984, describes the law covering water transportation in the U.S. foreign trade.

Shipping Act of 1998
Amends the Act of 1984 to provide for confidential service contracts and other items.

Shipping Order
Shipper's instructions to carrier for forwarding goods; usually the triplicate copy of the bill of lading.

Ships

  • Bulk Carriers: All vessels designed to carry bulk cargo such as grain, fertilizers, ore, and oil.
  • Combination Passenger and Cargo Ships: Ships with a capacity for 13 or more passengers.
  • Freighters: Breakbulk vessels both refrigerated and unrefrigerated, containerships, partial containerships, roll on/roll off vessels, and barge carriers.
  • Barge Carriers: Ships designed to carry barges; some are fitted to act as full containerships and can carry a varying number of barges and containers at the same time. At present this class includes two types of vessels LASH and Sea-Bee.
  • General Cargo Carriers: Breakbulk freighters, car carriers, cattle carriers, pallet carriers and timber carriers.
  • Full Containerships: Ships equipped with permanent container cells, with little or no space for other types of cargo.
  • Partial Containerships: Multipurpose containerships where one or more but not all compartments are fitted with permanent container cells. Remaining compartments are used for other types of cargo.
  • Roll-on/Roll-off vessels: Ships specially designed to carry wheeled containers or trailers using interior ramps.
  • Tankers: Ships fitted with tanks to carry liquid cargo such as: crude petroleum and petroleum products; chemicals, Liquefied gasses(LNG and LPG), wine, molasses, and similar product tankers.

Shore
A prop or support placed against or beneath anything to prevent sinking or sagging.

Short Ton (ST)
2,000 pounds.

Shrink Wrap
Polyethylene or similar substance heat-treated and shrunk into an envelope around several units, thereby securing them as a single pack for presentation or to secure units on a pallet.

Side Loader
A lift truck fitted with lifting attachments operating to one side for handling containers.

Side-Door Container
A container fitted with a rear door and a minimum of one side door.

Sight Draft
A draft payable upon presentation to the drawee.

Skids
Battens, or a series of parallel runners, fitted beneath boxes or packages to raise them clear of the floor to permit easy access of forklift blades or other handling equipment.

SL/W
Shippers load and count. All three clauses are used as needed on the bill of lading to exclude the carrier from liability when the cargo is loaded by the shipper.
Sleepers
Loaded containers moving within the railroad system that are not clearly identified on any internally generated reports.

Sling
A wire or rope contrivance placed around cargo and used to load or discharge it to/from a vessel.

Slip
A vessel's berth between two piers.

SPA
Abbreviation for "Subject to Particular Average." See also Particular Average.

Spine Car
An articulated five-platform railcar. Used where height and weight restrictions limit the use of stack cars. It holds five 40-foot containers or combinations of 40- and 20-foot containers.

Spotting
Placing a container where required to be loaded or unloaded.

Spreader
A piece of equipment designed to lift containers by their corner castings.

Stability
The force that holds a vessel upright or returns it to upright if keeled over. Weight in the lower hold increases stability. A vessel is stiff if it has high stability, tender if it has low stability.

Stack Car
An articulated five-platform rail car that allows containers to be double stacked. A typical stack car holds ten 40-foot equivalent units (FEU's).

Stacktrain
A rail service whereby rail cars carry containers stacked two high on specially operated unit trains. Each train includes up to 35 articulated multi-platform cars. Each car is comprised of 5 well-type platforms upon which containers can be stacked. No chassis accompany containers.

Standard Industrial Classification (SIC)
A standard numerical code used by the U.S. Government to classify products and services.

Standard International Trade Classification (SITC)
A standard numeric code developed by the United Nations to classify commodities used in international trade, based on a hierarchy.

Starboard
The right side of a ship when facing the bow.

Statute Of Limitation
A law limiting the time in which claims or suits may be instituted.

STCC
Abbreviation for "Standard Transportation Commodity Code."

Steamship Conference
A group of vessel operators joined together for the purpose of establishing freight rates.

Steamship Guarantee
An indemnity issued to the carrier by a bank; protects the carrier against any possible losses or damages arising from release of the merchandise to the receiving party. This instrument is usually issued when the bill of lading is lost or is not available.

Stern
The end of a vessel. Opposite of bow.

Stevedore
Individual or firm that employs longshoremen and who contracts to load or unload the ship.

Store-Door Pick-up Delivery
A complete package of pick up or delivery services performed by a carrier from origin to final consumption point.

Stowage
A marine term referring to loading freight into ships' holds.

STC
Said to contain.

Straddle Carrier
Mobile truck equipment with the capacity for lifting a container within its own framework.

Straight Bill of Lading
A non-negotiable bill of lading which states a specific identity to whom the goods should be delivered. See Bill of Lading.

Stripping
Removing cargo from a container (devanning).

Stuffing
Putting cargo into a container.

STW
Said to weigh.

Subrogate
To put in place of another; i.e., when an insurance company pays a claim it is placed in the same position as the payee with regard to any rights against others.

Surface Transportation Board (STB)
The U.S. federal body charged with enforcing acts of the U.S. Congress that affect common carriers in interstate commerce. STB replaced the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) in 1997.

Sufferance Wharf
A wharf licensed and attended by Customs authorities.

Supply Chain
A logistical management system which integrates the sequence of activities from delivery of raw materials to the manufacturer through to delivery of the finished product to the customer into measurable components. "Just in Time" is a typical value-added example of supply chain management.

Surcharge
An extra or additional charge.

Surtax
An additional extra tax.

T

T.&E.
Abbreviation for "Transportation and Exportation." Customs form used to control cargo movement from port of entry to port of exit, meaning that the cargo is moving from one country, through the United States, to another country.

Tail
Rear of a container or trailer-opposite the front or nose.

Tare Weight
In railcar or container shipments, the weight of the empty railcar or empty container.

Tariff (Trf.)
A publication setting forth the charges, rates and rules of transportation companies.

Telex
Used for sending messages to outside companies. Messages are transmitted via Western Union, ITT and RCA. Being replaced by fax and internet.

Temperature Recorder
A device to record temperature in a container while cargo is en route.

Tender
The offer of goods for transportation or the offer to place cars or containers for loading or unloading.

Tenor
Time and date for payment of a draft.

Terminal
An assigned area in which containers are prepared for loading into a vessel, train, truck, or airplane or are stacked immediately after discharge from the vessel, train, truck, or airplane.

Terminal Charge
A charge made for a service performed in a carrier's terminal area.

Terms of Sale
The point at which sellers have fulfilled their obligations so the goods in a legal sense could be said to have been delivered to the buyer. They are shorthand expressions that set out the rights and obligations of each party when it comes to transporting the goods. Following, are the thirteen terms of sale in international trade as Terms of Sale reflected in the recent amendment to the International chamber of Commerce Terms of Trade (INCOTERMS), effective July 1990: exw, fca, fas, fob, cfr, cif, cpt, cip, daf, des, deq, ddu and ddp.

  • EXW (Ex Works) (...Named Place): A Term of Sale which means that the seller fulfills the obligation to deliver when he or she has made the goods available at his/her premises (i.e., works, factory, warehouse, etc.) to the buyer. In particular, the seller is not responsible for loading the goods in the vehicle provided by the buyer or for clearing the goods for export, unless otherwise agreed. The buyer bears all costs and risks involved in taking the goods from the seller's premises to the desired destination. This term thus represents the minimum obligation for the seller.
  • FCA (Free Carrier) (... Named Place): A Term of Sale which means the seller fulfills their obligation when he or she has handed over the goods, cleared for export, into the charge of the carrier named by the buyer at the named place or point. If no precise point is indicated by the buyer, the seller may choose, within the place or range stipulated, where the carrier should take the goods into their charge.
  • FAS (Free Alongside Ship) (...Named Port of Shipment): A Term of Sale which means the seller fulfills his obligation to deliver when the goods have been placed alongside the vessel on the quay or in lighters at the named port of shipment.This means that the buyer has to bear all costs and risks of loss of or damage to the goods from that moment.
  • FOB (Free On Board) (...Named Port of Shipment): An International Term of Sale that means the seller fulfills his or her obligation to deliver when the goods have passed over the ship's rail at the named port of shipment. This means that the buyer has to bear all costs and risks to loss of or damage to the goods from that point. The FOB term requires the seller to clear the goods for export.
  • CFR (Cost and Freight) (...Named Port of Destination): A Term of Sale where the seller pays the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the named port of destination, Terms of Sale but the risk of loss of or damage to the goods, as (continued) well as any additional costs due to events occurring after the time the goods have been delivered on board the vessel, is transferred from the seller to the buyer when the goods pass the ship's rail in the port of shipment. The CFR term requires the seller to clear the goods for export.
  • CIF (Cost, Insurance and Freight) (...Named Place of Destination): A Term of Sale where the seller has the same obligations as under the CFR but also has to procure marine insurance against the buyer's risk of loss or damage to the goods during the carriage. The seller contracts for insurance and pays the insurance premium. The CIF term requires the seller to clear the goods for export.
  • CPT (Carriage Paid To) (...Named Place of Destination): A Term of Sale which means the seller pays the freight for the carriage of the goods to the named destination. The risk of loss of or damage to the goods, as well as any additional costs due to events occurring after the time the goods have been delivered to the carrier, is transferred from the seller to the buyer when the goods have been delivered into the custody of the carrier. If subsequent carriers are used for the carriage to the agreed upon destination, the risk passes when the goods have been delivered to the first carrier. The CPT term requires the seller to clear the goods for export.
  • CIP (Carriage and Insurance Paid To) (...Named Place of Destination): A Term of Sale which means the seller has the same obligations as under CPT, but with the addition that the seller has to procure cargo insurance against the buyer's risk of loss of or damage to the goods during the carriage. The seller contracts for insurance and pays the insurance premium. The buyer should note that under the CIP term the seller is required to obtain insurance only on minimum coverage. The CIP term requires the seller to clear the goods for export.
  • DAF (Delivered At Frontier) (...Named Place): A Term of Sale which means the sellers fulfill their obligation to deliver when the goods have been made available, cleared for export, at the named point and placed at the frontier, but before the customs Terms of Sale border of the adjoining country. (continued)
  • DDU (Delivered Duty Unpaid) (...Named Port of Destination): A Term of Sale where the seller fulfills his obligation to deliver when the goods have been made available at the named place in the country of importation. The seller has to bear the costs and risks involved in bringing the goods thereto (excluding duties, taxes and other official charges payable upon importation) as well as the costs and risks of carrying out customs formalities. The buyer has to pay any additional costs and to bear any risks caused by failure to clear the goods for in time.
  • DDP (Delivered Duty paid) (...Named Port of Destination): "Delivered Duty Paid" means that the seller fulfills his obligation to deliver when the goods have been made available at the named place in the country of importation. The seller has to bear the risks and costs, including duties, taxes and other charges of delivering the goods thereto, clear for importation. While the EXW term represents the minimum obligation for the seller, DDP represents the maximum.
  • DES (Delivered Ex Ship) (...Named Port of Destination): A Term of Sale where the seller fulfills his/her obligation to deliver when the goods have been made available to the buyer on board the ship, uncleared for import at the named port of destination. The seller has to bear all the costs and risks involved in bringing the goods to the named port destination.
  • DEQ (Delivered Ex Quay, [Duty Paid]) (...Named Port of Destination): A Term of Sale which means the DDU term has been fulfilled when the goods have been available to the buyer on the quay (wharf) at the named port of destination, cleared for importation. The seller has to bear all risks and costs including duties, taxes and other charges of delivering the goods thereto.

TBN
To Be Nominated. (When the name of a ship is still unknown.)

TEU
Abbreviation for "Twenty foot Equivalent Unit."

Tonnage
100 cubic feet.

Through Rate
The total rate from the point of origin to final destination.

Throughput Charge
The charge for moving a container through a container yard off or onto a ship.

Time Charter
A contract for leasing between the ship owners and the lessee. It would state, e.g., the duration of the lease in years or voyages.

Time Draft
A draft that matures either a certain number of days after acceptance or a certain number of days after the date of the draft.

TIR
- "Transport International par la Route." Road transport operating agreement among European governments and the United States for the international movement of cargo by road. Display of the TIR carnet allows sealed containerloads to cross national frontiers without inspection.

TL
Abbreviation for "Trailer Load."

TOFC
Abbreviation for "Trailer on Flat Car." The movement of a highway trailer on a railroad flatcar. Also known as Piggyback.

Ton-Mile
- A unit used in comparing freight earnings or expenses. The amount earned from the cost of hauling a ton of freight one mile.
- The movement of a ton of freight one mile.

Tonnage
Generally refers to freight handled.

Top-Air Delivery
A type of air circulation in a container. In top air units, air is drawn from the bottom of the container, filtered through the evaporator for cooling and then forced through the ducted passages along the top of the container. This type of airflow requires a special loading pattern.

Towage
The charge made for towing a vessel.

Tractor
Unit of highway motive power used to pull one or more trailers/containers.

Trade Acceptance
A time or a date draft that has been accepted by the buyer (the drawee) for payment at maturity.

Traffic
Persons and property carried by transport lines.

Trailer
The truck unit into which freight is loaded as in tractor trailer combination. See Container.

Tramp Line
An ocean carrier company operating vessels not on regular runs or schedules. They call at any port where cargo may be available.

Transport
To move cargo from one place to another.

Transportation & Exit (T&E)
Allows foreign merchandise arriving at one port to be transported in bond through the U.S. to be exported from another port, without paying duty.

Transship
To transfer goods from one transportation line to another, or from one ship to another.

Transshipment Port
Place where cargo is transferred to another carrier.

Trust Receipt
Release of merchandise by a bank to a buyer while the bank retains title to the merchandise. The goods are usually obtained for manufacturing or sales purposes. The buyer is obligated to maintain the goods (or the proceeds from their sales) distinct from the remainder of the assets and to hold them ready for repossession by the bank.

Turnaround
In water transportation, the time it takes between the arrival of a vessel and its departure.

Twist Locks
A set of four twistable bayonet type shear keys used as part of a spreader to pick up a container or as part of a chassis to secure the containers.

Two-Way Pallet
A pallet so designed that the forks of a fork lift truck can be inserted from two sides only.

U

UCP
Abbreviation for the "Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits," published by the International Chamber of Commerce. This is the most frequently used standard for making payments in international trade; e.g., paying on a Letter of Credit. It is most frequently referred to by its shorthand title: UCP No. 500. This revised publication reflects recent changes in the transportation and banking industries, such as electronic transfer of funds.

UFC
Abbreviation for "Uniform Freight Classification."

Ullage
The space not filled with liquid in a drum or tank.

UN/EDIFACT
United Nations EDI for Administration, Commerce and Transport. EDI Standards are developed and supported by the UN for electronic message (data) interchange on an international level.

Unclaimed Freight
Freight that has not been called for or picked up by the consignee or owner.

Undercharge
To charge less than the proper amount.

Uniform Customs and Practices for Documentary Credits (UCP)
Rules for letters of credit drawn up by the Commission on Banking Technique and Practices of the International Chamber of Commerce in consultation with the banking associations of many countries. See Terms of Payment.

Unit Load
Packages loaded on a pallet, in a crate or any other way that enables them to be handled at one time as a unit.

Unit Train
A train of a specified number of railcars, perhaps 100, which remain as a unit for a designated destination or until a change in routing is made.

Unitization
- The consolidation of a quantity of individual items into one large shipping unit for easier handling.
- Loading one or more large items of cargo onto a single piece of equipment, such as a pallet.

Unloading
Removal of a shipment from a vessel.

U.S. Consular Invoice
A document required on merchandise imported into the United States.

UU
Unless Used

V

Validated Export License
A document issued by the U.S. government; authorizes the export of commodities for which written authorization is required by law.

Validation
Authentication of B/L and when B/L becomes effective.

Vanning
A term for stowing cargo in a container.

Variable Cost
Costs that vary directly with the level of activity within a short time. Examples include costs of moving cargo inland on trains or trucks, stevedoring in some ports, and short-term equipment leases. For business analysis, all costs are either defined as variable or fixed. For a business to break even, all fixed costs must be covered. To make a profit, all variable and fixed costs must be recovered plus some extra amount.

Ventilated Container
A container designed with openings in the side and/or end walls to permit the ingress of outside air when the doors are closed.

Vessel Supplies for Immediate Exportation (VSIE)
Allows equipment and supplies arriving at one port to be loaded on a vessel, aircraft, etc., for its exclusive use and to be exported from the same port.

Vessel Manifest
The international carrier is obligated to make declarations of the ship's crew and contents at both the port of departure and arrival. The vessel manifest lists various details about each shipment by B/L number. Obviously, the B/L serves as the core source from which the manifest is created.

Viz.
Namely. Used in tariffs to specify commodities.

W

War Risk
Insurance coverage for loss of goods resulting from any act of war.

Warehouse
A place for the reception, delivery, consolidation, distribution, and storage of goods/cargo.

Warehouse Entry
Document that identifies goods imported when placed in a bonded warehouse. The duty is not imposed on the products while in the warehouse but will be collected when they are withdrawn for delivery or consumption.

Warehouse Withdrawal for Transportation Immediate Exportation (WDEX)
Allows merchandise that has been withdrawn from a bonded warehouse at one U.S. port to be exported from the same port exported without paying duty.

Warehouse Withdrawal for Transportation (WDT)
Allows merchandise that has been withdrawn from a bonded warehouse at one port to be transported in bond to another port, where a superseding entry will be filed.

Warehouse Withdrawal for Transportation Exportation (WDT&E)
Allows merchandise that has been withdrawn from a bonded warehouse at one port to be transported in bond through the U.S. to be exported from another port, without paying duty.

Warehousing
The storing of goods/cargo.

Waybill (WB)
A document prepared by a transportation line at the point of a shipment; shows the point of the origin, destination, route, consignor, consignee, description of shipment and amount charged for the transportation service. It is forwarded with the shipment or sent by mail to the agent at the transfer point or waybill destination.
Abbreviation is WB. Unlike a bill of lading, a waybill is NOT a document of title.

WCCON
Whether Cleared Customso r Not

Weight Cargo
A cargo on which the transportation charge is assessed on the basis of weight.

Weights and Measures
Measurement ton 40 cubic ft or one cubic meter.
Net ton, or short ton 2,000 lbs.
Gross ton/long ton 2,240 lbs.
Metric ton/kilo ton 2,204.6 lbs.
Cubic meter 35.314 cubic ft.

Well Car
Also known as stack car. A drop-frame Rail flat car.

Wharfage (Whfge.)
Charge assessed by a pier or dock owner against freight handled over the pier or dock or against a steamship company using the pier or dock.

WIBON
Whether In Berth or Not.

WIFPON
Whether in Free Pratique or Not

Windy Booking
A freight booking made by a skipper or freight forwarder to serve space but not actually having a specific cargo at the time the booking is made. Carriers often overbook a vessel by 10 to 20 percent in recognition that "windy booking" cargo will not actually ship.

WIPPON
Whether in Port or Not

Without Recourse
A phrase preceding the signature of a drawer or endorser of a negotiable instrument; signifies that the instrument is passed onto subsequent holders without any liability to the endorser in the event of nonpayment or nondelivery.

W.M. (W/M)
Abbreviation for "Weight or Measurement;" the basis for assessing freight charges. Also known as "worm." The rate charged under W/M will be whichever produces the highest revenue between the weight of the shipment and the measure of the shipment.

WPA
Abbreviation for "With Particular Average."

W.T.L.
Western Truck Lines.

WWD
Weather Working Days
XYZ

Y

Yard
A classification, storage or switching area.

York-Antwerp Rules of 1974
Established the standard basis for adjusting general average and stated the rules for adjusting claims.

Z

Zulu Time
Time based on Greenwich Mean Time.